Abdollahi, A. (2008) [globalization, metropolises and transformation of urban and rural development patterns (reflecting the extent of poverty and inequality in Mashhad city) (Persian)]. University of Mashhad.
Alipour, K. (2012). [an analysis of the relationships village Counter- City Vangyzsh living in Iran (Persian)]. the fourth largest global scientific conference of students of geography. in April 2012, (pp12-1). Iran: Tehran.
Alirezanejad, S., Banihashim, F. (2012). [Gender and Development: A look at the demographic changes in rural areas of the country (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Social Studies, 4(2), 93-81.
Azani, M, Bostani, S. (2013). [Analysis of factors affecting rural-urban migration case (city of mamasani). (Persian)]. Journal of geographic space, 13(41), 111-93.
Datta, A., Mishra, S. K. (2011). Glimpses of women’s lives in rural Bihar: impact of male migration. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 54(3), 457-477.
De Haas, H., Van Rooij, A. (2010). Migration as emancipation? The impact of internal and international migration on the position of women left behind in rural Morocco. Oxford development studies, 38(1), 43-62.
Desai, S., Banerji, M. (2008). Negotiated identities: male migration and left-behind wives in India. Journal of Population Research, 25(3), 337-355.
Efati, M., (2008). [the seasonal migration of rural women and men: with an emphasis on social outcomes. (Persian)]. Cultural. a cultural research, 7(6), 292-245.
Ghasemi, M. (2010). [stabilization of population in rural settlements with emphasis on diversification approach to economic activities.(Persian)]. thesis, University of Mashhad.
Habibpour Gatabi, C. & Safari shomali, R. (2012). [a comprehensive guide on the use of SPSS survey research (quantitative analysis) (Persian)], Tehran: publishing motefakeran.
Herzog Jr, H. W., Schlottmann, A. M., & Boehm, T. P. (1993). Migration as spatial job–search: a survey of empirical findings. Regional Studies, 27(4), 327-340.
Ikuomola, A. D. (2015). An exploration of life experiences of left behind wives in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology, 1(1), 289-307.
Khani, F. (2009). [the consequences of migration on the working men›s singles, women in rural areas: Case Study of Rural Bandpei Asia(Persian)]. the Caspian, the Journal of Women›s Studies, 2(4), 176-149.
Khani, F., Choobchiyan, SH.(2012). [Gender relations in Rural Spaces and its Effects on Women’s participation, a Comparative Study on Moreedan Rural District of Langerud City in Gilan Province and Rural District of Hooly from Paveh city in Kermanshah Province) (Persian)]. Journal of Rural Studies, 3(3), 162-138.
Maharjan, A., Bauer, S., Knerr, B. (2012). Do rural women who stay behind benefit from male out-migration? A case study in the hills of Nepal. Gender, Technology and Development, 16(1), 95-123.
Papoli Yazdi, M. H, & Ibrahimi, M. A. (2007). [rural development theory (Persian)]. Tehran: publishing samt.
Sarkar, D. (2007). Status of Rural Women, Left Behind for Male Labour Circulation: an Empirical Study of Cooch Behar District, West Bengal, India. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(9), 103-112.
Sarmad, zohre, bazargan, Abbas & Hijazi, elahe. (2014). [Research methods in the behavioral sciences (Persian)]. Tehran: publishing Cognizant.
Schulz, M. (2014). April, Migrating Men–Mobile Women?. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophische Fakultät III, Institut für Asien-und Afrikawissenschaften, Seminar für Südasien-Studien.
Statistical Center of Iran, General Census of Population and Housing, Personal settlements, (2011). https://www.amar.org.ir/
Statistical Center of Iran, Census results of population and housing, (2011). https://www.amar.org.ir/
Taherkhani, M. (2001). [Analysis of factors affecting of rural/urban the migration (Persian)]. Journal of Geographical Research, 62(3), 67-93.
Vatankhah Noghani, A, (2016). Analysis of the effects of migration on economic and social situation of women in rural settlements men with low sex ratio(Case Study: Mashhad County) (Persian)]. Doctrian theses, Ferdowsi university of mashhad.
Yabiku, S. T., Agadjanian, V., & Sevoyan, A. (2010). Husbands› labour migration and wives› autonomy, Mozambique 2000–2006. Population studies, 64(3), 293-306.