تحلیل علل و انگیزه‌های مهاجرت بازگشتی در میان مهاجران روستایی (موردمطالعه: شهرستان خرم‌‏آباد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه توسعه روستایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

در دهه‌های اخیر، فرایند بازگشت مهاجران روستایی به سکونتگاه‌های مبدأ خود را می‌توان به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین جریان‌های تحرک جمعیتی قلمداد نمود که ناشی از روندهای کلی تغییر شرایط زندگی و بهبود نسبی آن در روستاها نسبت به گذشته و کم‌رنگ شدن علت اولیه مهاجرت یا کاهش مزایای زندگی در شهر به‌عنوان مقصد، است. با توجه به لزوم اهمیت تحلیل چنین جریان‌هایی در گستره منطقه‌ای و در حیطه روابط شهر و روستا، مقالـه حاضـر، به دنبال بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر میزان تمایل مهاجرین روستایی نسبت به مهاجرت بازگشتی در شهرستان خرم‏آباد است. پژوهش کاربردی، از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی- همبستگی و جامعه آماری شامل تمامی مهاجرانی روستایی است که طی سال‏های 1385- 1395 به روستاهای خود بازگشته‌اند، (N=24160). ابزار تحقیق پرسشنامه محقق ساخته‌ای است که روایی و پایایی شکلی و محتوایی آن با استفاده از نظرسنجی از متخصصان حوزه‌های اقتصاد و توسعه روستایی و آزمون آلفای کرونباخ تأییدشده است. نتـایج به‌دست‌آمده، نشان‌دهنده وجـود ارتبـاط مثبـت و معنـادار بـین متغیرهـای بعد خانوار، نسبت قوم‌وخویشان ساکن در روستا، میزان زمین و دارایی روستایی و هزینه و وجــود رابطه منفــی و معنــادار بــین محله سکونت شخص مهاجر، درآمد و پس‌انداز در شهر با میزان انگیزه برای بازگشتی به روستا است. همچنین نتایج آزمون t مستقل نشان داد که تفاوت معناداری در میزان تمایل به مهاجرت بازگشتی در بین گروه‏ افراد مالک و غیر مالک زمین در روستا، افراد داری شغل موقت و دائم در شهر و کسانی که دارای زمین کشاورزی و افرادی که تنها صاحب زمین مسکونی در روستا هستند، وجود دارد.

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